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ReliefWeb

Situation Reports / 15 Feb 2014

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – 09 Feb 2014
HIGHLIGHTS • The number of people from South Sudan seeking shelter in Sudan stands at some 24,700 as of 10 February, according to the Government of Sudan and humanitarian organisations. • The AU announced the resumption of negotiations between the Government of Sudan an d SPLM-N on the … Read more
European Commission Humanitarian Aid department – 13 Feb 2014
Messages clés – Suite à l’escalade de la violence intercommunautaire au début du mois de décembre 2013, le nombre de personnes déplacées internes (PDI s ) a dépassé les 714 000. Plus de 288 000 se trouvent dans la capitale, Bangui. 60% d’en tre elles sont des enfants. Plus de la moitié … Read more
European Commission Humanitarian Aid department – 13 Feb 2014
Key messages – Following the escalation of the inter-communal violence in the beginning of December 2013, the number of internally displaced people (IDPs) in the Central African Republic has increased to more than 714 000. Over 288 000 are reported in the capital Bangui. Sixty percent of them are … Read more
World Food Programme – 15 Feb 2014
South Sudan was affected by poor macro-economic performance even before the breakout of the current crisis, showing declining per capita GDP, shortage of foreign reserves, deflation, and a high spread between official and informal exchange rates. Despite the improved harvest, the country will still … Read more
UN High Commissioner for Refugees – 31 Jan 2014
UNHCR operational highlights – The awareness campaign on the multi-year resettlement operation of Congolese refugees took place from January 22 to 28 in several communes of Bujumbura. The aim was to give all the information on this operation and to raise awareness about responsible behavior from … Read more
UN High Commissioner for Refugees – 31 Jan 2014
Faits marquants dans les opérations de l’UNHCR – La campagne de sensibilisation sur l’opération pluri-annuelle de réinstallation des réfugiés congolais s’est déroulée du 22 au 28 janvier dans plusieurs communes de la Mairie de Bujumbura. Le but était de donner toute l’information … Read more
Famine Early Warning System Network – 15 Feb 2014
Maize is the main staple crop in Tanzania. Rice and beans are also very important, the latter constituting the main source of protein for most low- and middle- income households. Dar es Salaam is the main consumer market in the country. Arusha is another important market and is linked with Kenya in … Read more
Famine Early Warning System Network – 15 Feb 2014
Maize, sorghum, wheat, and groundnuts are the most important food commodities in South Sudan. Sorghum, maize, and groundnuts are the staple foods for the poor in most rural areas. Maize flour and wheat (as bread) are more important for middle-income and rich households in urban areas. Sorghum and … Read more
Famine Early Warning System Network – 15 Feb 2014
Maize grain and maize meal are the most important food commodities and indicators of food security in Zambia. All of the markets represented — with the exception of Kitwe — are in provincial centers and thus provide a geographic representation. Chipata and Choma are both areas of high maize … Read more
Famine Early Warning System Network – 15 Feb 2014
Maize is the most widely consumed cereal by the rural poor. Sorghum is generally one of the cheapest cereals. Teff is also very important throughout the country. The most important markets for teff are the large cities including Addis Ababa, Bahir Dar, Mekele, and Dire Dawa. Addis Abada is the … Read more
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – 13 Feb 2014
**HIGHLIGHTS** – Humanitarian aid delivered, and civilians evacuated from the besieged Old City of Homs – Estimated hundreds of thousands displaced from eastern Aleppo City and rural areas. – Nine days of access to Yarmouk camp enables distribution of food, medicines and medical attention to … Read more
US Agency for International Development – 14 Feb 2014
**HIGHLIGHTS** – Approximately 707,400 people remain internally displaced in South Sudan as a result of hostilities that began on December 15. – U.N. Under-Secretary-General and Emergency Relief Coordinator Valerie Amos declared the current crisis in South Sudan a Level Three Emergency on February … Read more

H7N9: China’s Growing Worry

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China’s affected provinces of Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hangzhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Fujian and Capital City region, 135 infected, 35 dead. 

“The H7N9 bird flu has killed one person in central China’s Hunan Province, local health authorities said Wednesday. A 64-year-old woman surnamed Guan died Tuesday morning at a hospital in the city of Shaoyang some 20 days after her infection was confirmed, the Hunan Provincial Health and Family Planning Commission said. She was the first person in Hunan diagnosed with the virus. Another three patients were confirmed afterward. One of the three died earlier this month, one has recovered and the other is still in critical condition, according to the commission. The first human infection was reported in China in late March. Authorities have recorded 130 confirmed cases thus far. Previously the National Health and Family Planning Commission said the virus had killed 35 people on the mainland, while 57 of those infected had recovered as of May 13.”

RSOE EDIS

 

World Health Organization Warns Of Bird Flu Epidemic, Tuesday

On Tuesday, Sri Lanka suspended meat imports from China and redoubled surveillance of wild birds migrating from that country, after the World Health Organization (WHO) warned of an epidemic.

Thousands of wid birds migrate to Sri Lank from China annually, according to Dr. W.K. de Silva, animal production and health department director with the Sri Lanka government. “We have doubled the number of samples that we collect from wild birds, particularly those that migrate to certain wetlands in Sri Lanka,” he told media.

“We will intensify the checks until the WHO warning is lifted,” he said.

Several versions of the rapidly evolving H7N9 bird flu virus are circulating within China, epidemiologists said Tuesday.

The novel influenza A virus, a combination of three similar viruses found in chickens, ducks, and wild birds, emerged in China in February and has sickened more than 100 people in China and Taiwan, killing at least 20. Among three early cases reported in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province in China, two of the patients had contact with environmental sources — namely, live poultry markets.

Testing of chicken cages and feces from the market visited by one of the two patients were positive for the virus, indicating a direct connection between the poultry source and human infection, researchers reported Tuesday in the journal Science China: Life Sciences. Funded by China and Hangzhou Province, the researchers analyzed the DNA sequences from the viruses found in that province in addition to H7N9 viral sequences available in databases. The sequencing showed divergence between samples from one of the earlier patients and others from the province, suggesting that “several H7N9 viruses are circulating in Hangzhou,” the authors wrote.

However, “it is uncertain whether the diversity of H7N9 in Hangzhou is the result of host adaptation, or predates the transmission to humans from an avian source.”

Researchers said the origin and development of the novel flu virus remains unknown, though a study involving animal models yielded some insight into the disease’s pathogenicity.

“A glutamine to isoleucine substitution was observed at position 226 of the hemagglutinin amino acid sequence in the newly sequenced virus,” the authors wrote. “Isoleucine has similar characteristics to leucine, which was previously shown to be a pivotal amino acid in the binding of avian- or human-type receptor, and might be essential for pathogenicity in cases of airborne viral transmission. This substitution was observed for the first time at this site in H7N9, which may indicate a novel host adaptation feature of the H7 virus.”

Medical Daily

 

The study suggests the disease continues to mutate rapidly, and that researchers should further explore the significance of the receptor binding properties of Q226I protein sequence in the virus — as well as the significance of the substitutions, in both live organisms and laboratory sequencing.

Source: Li J, Yu X F, Pu X Y, et al. Environmental connections of novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza virus infection and virus adaptation to the human. Sci China Life Sci, 2013, 56(6), 485-492. doi: 10.1007/s11427-013-4491-3.

Updates on H5N1 current situation can be found at:

http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/avian-flu-summary.htm

http://medicalxpress.com/tags/avian+flu/

You can read more information about the general history of H5N1 strain at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avian_flu_outbreak_of_2009#2009

You can check out the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) Resources and Information on Avian Flu with this link:

http://www.who.int/influenza/resources/avian_influenza/en/index.html

You can find the CDC’s General Information on Avian Flu here:

http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/

 

May 15

North Korea’s H5N1 Outbreak

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There was a strain of H5N1 in North Korea reported Tuesday, 14 May, 2013.

 

A new outbreak of the H5N1 strain of the avian influenza virus has been confirmed at a duck production unit in P’yongyang-Si, resulting in the deaths of more than 164,000 ducks. This is according to the World Organisation for Animal Health who received notification from the Anti-Epizootic Department at the Ministry of Agriculture in Pyongyang yesterday. Ducks in one of the 20 cages showed clinical signs on 19 April 2013 but recovered 3-4 days later. As mortality increased, samples were sent to the Central Veterinary Station on 2 May 2013. In total, one adult cage, 12 fattening cages and 7 duckling cages were infected. More than 2,000 adult duc

ks, 42,000 fattening ducks and 120,000 ducklings younger than 20 days were dead or killed. Movement controls, quarantining an disinfection are part of a raft of measures put in place to control the outbreak.  H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

RSOE EDIS

 

Updates on H5N1 current situation can be found at:

http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/avian-flu-summary.htm

http://medicalxpress.com/tags/avian+flu/

You can read more information about the general history of H5N1 strain at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avian_flu_outbreak_of_2009#2009

You can check out the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) Resources and Information on Avian Flu with this link:

http://www.who.int/influenza/resources/avian_influenza/en/index.html

You can find the CDC’s General Information on Avian Flu here:

http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/