Tag Archive: Drought

info4 Drought Quick links

Save pagePDF pageEmail pagePrint page

“>

Drought
In general, drought is defined as an extended period – a season, a year, or several years – of deficient rainfall relative to the statistical multi-year average for a region. However, dozens of more specific drought definitions are used around the world that are defined according to the lack of rain over various time periods, or measured impacts such as reservoir levels or crop losses. Because of the various ways drought is measured, an objective drought definition has yet to be produced upon which everyone can agree[1].
Source: UNISDR
Characteristics
Drought can be defined according to meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural criteria[2].
– Meteorological.
Drought is usually based on long-term precipitation departures from normal, but there is no consensus regarding the threshold of the deficit or the minimum duration of the lack of precipitation that make a dry spell an official drought.
– Hydrological
Drought refers to deficiencies in surface and subsurface water supplies. It is measured as stream flow, and as lake, reservoir, and ground water levels.
– Agricultural
Drought occurs when there is insufficient soil moisture to meet the needs of a particular crop at a particular time. A deficit of rainfall over cropped areas during critical periods of the growth cycle can result in destroyed or underdeveloped crops with greatly depleted yields. Agricultural drought is typically evident after meteorological drought but before a hydrological drought.
Impacts/damages
Impacts are commonly referred to as direct or indirect. Reduced crop, rangeland, and forest productivity; increased fire hazard; reduced water levels; increased livestock and wildlife mortality rates; and damage to wildlife and fish habitat are a few examples of direct impacts. The consequences of these impacts illustrate indirect impacts. For example, a reduction in crop, rangeland, and forest productivity may result in reduced income for farmers and agribusiness, increased prices for food and timber, unemployment, reduced tax revenues because of reduced expenditures, increased crime, foreclosures on bank loans to farmers and businesses, migration, and disaster relief programs. Direct or primary impacts are usually biophysical. Conceptually speaking, the more removed the impact from the cause, the more complex the link to the cause. In fact, the web of impacts becomes so diffuse that it is very difficult to come up with financial estimates of damages. The impacts of drought can be categorized as economic, environmental, or social.
Many economic impacts occur in agriculture and related sectors, including forestry and fisheries, because of the reliance of these sectors on surface and subsurface water supplies. In addition to obvious losses in yields in crop and livestock production, drought is associated with increases in insect infestations, plant disease, and wind erosion. Droughts also bring increased problems with insects and diseases to forests and reduce growth. The incidence of forest and range fires increases substantially during extended droughts, which in turn places both human and wildlife populations at higher levels of risk[3].
See also an example of the effects of drought on the aquatic ecosystem in Australia and Colorado.
Emergency Action
In order to assess risk and respond to drought, a water supplier may wish to establish a local drought management team. Be sure to include people from all the relevant local water user groups on the team[4] (see more details on the link). A team may:
  • gather all the available drought information for your community,
  • identify information gaps,
  • target water management needs,
  • implement water conservation strategies,
  • provide support to local government in managing community water supplies, and
  • communicate with the public.
See also the action on responding to drought in pastoral areas of Ethiopia and the North Carolina emergency response plan.
Mitigation
The mitigation action identifies both the long and short term activities and actions that can be implemented to prevent and mitigate drought impacts. Such activities and actions are essential in the development of specific drought planning and response efforts. The operational component includes six aspects that need continuous feedback between them[5]:
  • Preparedness, early warning, monitoring systems.
  • Establishing priorities of water use.
  • Defining the conditions and the thresholds to declare drought levels.
  • Establishing the management objectives in each drought level.
  • Defining the actions.
  • Implementation of actions.
Monitoring and preparedness planning is the first essential step for moving from crisis to risk management in response to drought, and can be viewed as permanent measures to cope with drought events. The management actions related to agriculture and water supply systems are presented with a common conceptual framework based on the use of drought indices for evaluating the levels of drought risk (pre-alert, alert, and emergency), that allow linkages to be established between science (risk analysis) and policy (operational component).
See also drought mitigation policy in South Africa in Water Page and drought mitigation strategy for Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh in India.
Further information
Several actions related to drought management plans:
1.    Drought contingency planning for pastoral livelihoods. (click here)
2.    Drought Contingency and Emergency Water Management Plan in Texas. (click here)
3.    Drought management guidelines in Mediterranean countries. (click here)
4.    Information about satellite observation and rainfall forecast to provide earlier warning of African drought by USGS.
 
 
above info4mation is from our friends at the UN

 

DROUGHT
USGS Water Use
UNL Drought Monitor
UNL Drought Monitor Current Conditions
National Drought Mitigation Center
USDA Drought Reports
USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
NOAA’s Drought Info

 

[important]PLEASE PUT ANY BROKEN LINKS IN THE COMMENTS BOX. THANK YOU![/important]

info4 US State Disaster Agencies Quick Links

Save pagePDF pageEmail pagePrint page

[notice]State Disaster Agencies[/notice]

 

Special Features

N

Homeland Security: State Emergency Services
Homeland Security: State Contact Map

Emergency Management: State Map

FDA: State Health Agencies

State by State

Alabama

Alaska

Arizona

Arkansas

California

California: Emergency Digital Information

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York State

New York City

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon
Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina
South Dakota

Tennessee
Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington, D.C.

Washington State

Wyoming

West Virginia

Wisconsin

info4 Wildfires Quick Links

Save pagePDF pageEmail pagePrint page

Western Wildfires, 2012

Western Wildfires, US 2012

[feed url=”http://inciweb.org/feeds/rss/incidents/” limit=”5″]

 

[notice]Wildfires[/notice]

 

.. What is a wildfire? A wildfire is an unplanned, unwanted wildland fire including unauthorized human-caused fires1. Vegetation fires are caused by slash and burn land clearing, clearing of plantations following logging operations, and by natural events such as lightning or extreme drought. During dry seasons fires usually reach a peak and can present a transboundary problem when prevailing winds disperse the smoke across borders to other countries2. .. Characteristics/Measurements: There are three different classes of wildland fires. A surface fire is the most common type and burns along the floor of a forest, moving slowly and killing or damaging trees. A ground fire is usually started by lightning and burns on or below the forest floor. Crown fires spread rapidly by wind and move quickly by jumping along the tops of trees. Wildland fires are usually signaled by dense smoke that fills the area for miles around3. .. Impacts/Causes of injury and damage: Destruction of vegetated and eventually inhabited areas and construction sites, potentially leading to large areas with ecological and economical losses. A major wildland fire can leave a large amount of scorched and barren land. These areas may not to return to prefire conditions for decades. If the wildland destroyed the ground cover, then erosion becomes one of several potential problems4. Smoke and other emissions contain pollutants that can cause significant health problems. The short-term effects contain destruction of timber, forage, wildlife habitats, scenic vistas, and watersheds. Furthermore the long-term effects contain reduced access to recreational areas; destruction of community infrastructure and cultural and economic resources5. .. Emergency action: Control Techniques: Bushfires are usually fought by numerous trained volunteers and a core of professional firefighters with vehicle -mounted equipment (in accessible terrain). Observation is often provided by light aircraft and helicopters. Water-bombing is also provided by helicopters with buckets which lift water from dams, lakes or swimming pools. They are effective in stopping spot fires ignited by windborne firebrands, sometimes kilometres ahead of the main fire-front. This greatly assists and contributes to the safety of firefighting crews. In large bushfires, bulldozers and graders are used to create emergency firebreaks ahead of firefronts. Back-burning from firebreaks is frequently effective in slowing or stopping the spread of fire.6. .. Mitigation: Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency, reduce the chance of an emergency happening, or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergencies. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now such as installing a spark arrestor on your chimney, cleaning roof surfaces and gutters regularly and using only fireresistant materials on the exterior of your home, will help reduce the impact of wildland fires in the future. For more information on mitigation, contact your local emergency management office.7 .. Further Information: Emergency Management Australia (EMA) http://www.ema.gov.au/agd/EMA/rwpattach.nsf/VAP/(1FEDA2C440E4190E0993A00B7C030CB7)~Hazards+7th+ed.pdf/$file/Hazards+7th+ed.pdf

Above info4mation is from UN-SPIDER

Special Features

NOAA

Hazard Mapping System – US
Fires & Smoke Satellite Analysis
Fire Danger Map – US
Fire Detection Around The World
Fire Weather Outlook – US
Covering Florida Fires

International Wildfires

The following links are via the Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC), an Activity of the
UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction  (UN-ISDR)

Current Global Fire Status
-Current & Archived Significant Global Fire Events and Fire Season Summaries
-Media Highlights on Fire, Policies, and Politics
-Regional and Global Vegetation Fire Emissions

Global Wildland Fire Early Warning System

International Assistance in Wildland Fire Emergencies
Emergency Assistance through the United Nations and the GFMC
International Agreements
Satellite Data for Wildland Fire Emergency Response
International Wildland Fire Response Operators and Material Suppliers
International Wildland Fire Exercises

Global Wildland Fire Network
Int. Wildland Fire Summit 2003
4th International Wildland Fire Conference 2007
5th International Wildland Fire Conference 2011

Global Fire Inventories and Models
Global Wildland Fire Assessment
Global Burnt Area Satellite Products
Other Remote Sensing Products
Fire Statistical Databases
Global Fire Models

International Forest Fire News (IFFN)

International Fire Management Programmes
Community-Based Fire Management (CBFiM)
Eurasian Fire in Nature Conservation Network (EFNCN)
International Peatland Fire Network
International Technical Cooperation Projects in Fire Management and Research
Fire Initiatives and Projects by NGOs

International Wildland Fire Research Programmes
United Nations University (UNU)
International Wildland Fire Research Programmes (IGBP-IGAC-BIBEX, IUFRO; IBFRA, FIRE PARADOX)

 Fire Meetings, Fire Management Training Courses & Jobs
Upcoming Fire and Related Meetings
GFMC-Wildland Fire Training Center Africa
EuroFire
Other Fire Management Courses and University Training
Retrospectives of Fire Meetings & Training Courses
Research and Employment Opportunities

Fire Glossaries, Literature and Software
Fire Management Glossaries
GFMC Fire Management Guidelines
Online Publications, Libraries and Bibliographies
U.S. Fire Information Systems and Software Products
International Association of Wildland Fire (IAWF)
Photo Archives and Contest

GFMC Links
Africa
-Australia and New Zealand

Europe / Russia / CIS
North America
-Mesoamerica
South America
Asia
Remote Sensing of Vegetation Fires
Weather and Climate Forecasts
-Natural Disasters
-Global Environmental Monitoring

Other US Links

USDA Active Fire Mapping System
MODIS Fire Imagery
USGS: Western Wildfires
USGS: Wildfire Research
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Fire Management
National Interagency Fire Center
NIFC National Fire News
Wildland Fire Assessment
Calif Fires
Bureau of Land M’gmt
Florida Division of Forestry
National Park Service
InfoZone
Forest Service: Fire
Forest Service: Other Fire Links
The Natural Role of Fire
Montana Fires

Other US Wildfire Sites

UCSB Southern California Wildfire Hazard Center
Firewise
Firehouse
Wildfire Images
Florida Today: Special Report
History of Wildfires
Wildfire News
American Red Cross: WildFires
Wildlandfire:”They Said”

[divider top=”1″]

[important]PLEASE PUT ANY BROKEN LINKS IN THE COMMENTS BOX. THANK YOU![/important]