Category Archive: Disaster Type

Typhoon Ruby (Hagupit) Resources

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(Last Updated: April 24, 2015 22:09 EST)

This page was strictly dedicated to Typhoon Ruby resources.  The links are updated and organized by closest related subject.  Visit the GOVPH Official Gazette Page for Typhoon Ruby Updates.  Visit PAGASA-DOST for weather updates. The Philippine Red Cross (PRC) remains a vital resource; listen to their advice carefully.

 

Communications

Directory of Gov PH Social Media Accounts to Follow for Updates

Google’s Typhoon Ruby Map

Project AGOS Map

 

Updates and Effort

Comprehensive Matrix of Typhoon Ruby actions

Situation Reports (PDF)

* Situation Report 16 was not made available on website

Field Bulletins

 

Weather-Related

List of Multihazard Maps in the “Yolanda Corridor”

Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA-DOST)

PAGASA-DOST Mobile (Android) Downloads

 

Ruby Preparedness Measures Situation Reports Archive (PDF)

 

Quick Note on the use of #RubyPH

The Philippine Government and PRC have been using the #RubyPH on Twitter & other micro-blogging platforms for outreach, crisismapping and social media monitoring.  Please use the hash-tag appropriately, especially when residing (and using) internationally.

 

Explanatory

Online information for natural calamities

What does it mean if an area is under a state of calamity?

Make sense of PAGASA’s color-coding signals

Learn more about PAGASA’s public storm warning signals

Infographic: Mga paalala ukol sa storm surge

Infographic: Mga paalala ukol sa baha

 

See Something Missing? Let Me Know!

If you see a missing resource in this list please comment below, and I will be happy to add the information!  Always looking to add to the list of Typhoon Ruby resources if you want to contribute! (:

 

Chile Earthquake and Tsunami 4-1-2014

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Number of Deaths: 6 person(s)
Number of Injured: 3 person(s)
Number of Evacuated: 900000 person(s)

Situation: Chile has declared two northern regions hit by a 8.2 magnitude earthquake to be disaster areas. At least six people are known to have died and tens of thousands of people have been evacuated. The quake struck at 20:46 local time (23:46 GMT) about 86km (52 miles) north-west of the mining area of Iquique, the US Geological Survey said. Waves of up to 2.1m (6ft) have hit some areas and there have been power cuts, fires and landslides. Tens of aftershocks have been reported throughout the night, including a 6.2 tremor. The government said the declaration of a disaster in the regions of Tarapaca, Arica and Parinacota was aimed at “avoiding instances of looting and disorder”. President Michelle Bachelet said the country had “faced the emergency well” and called on those in affected regions “to keep calm and follow instructions from the authorities”. She is due to visit the affected areas later on Wednesday. Chilean TV broadcast pictures of traffic jams as people tried to head for safer areas. Officials said the dead included people who were crushed by collapsing walls or died of heart attacks. The interior minister also told Chilean TV that some 300 women inmates had escaped from a prison in Iquique. Officials later said that 26 of them had been recaptured. Authorities say they have re-established electricity supply in 50% of the affected areas. Iquique Governor Gonzalo Prieto told local media that in addition to those killed, several people had been seriously injured. While the government said it had no reports of significant damage to coastal areas, a number of homes were reported destroyed in Arica.rnrnFurther damage may not be known until dawn. The quake shook modern buildings in Peru and in Bolivia’s high altitude capital of La Paz – more than 470km (290 miles) from Iquique. The Chilean interior ministry told the BBC that one of the main roads outside Iquique was cut off because of hillside debris. Partial landslides have also taken place between the towns of Putre and General Lagos. The authorities are reported to have deployed a planeload of special forces to guard against looting. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (TWC) issued an initial warning for Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Panama. However, all warnings, watches and alerts were later lifted except for Chile and Peru. Tsunami watches – in which the danger of large waves is deemed to be less serious – had been in place for Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico and Honduras. “We have asked citizens to evacuate the entire coast,” Chilean home office minister Mahmud Aleuy said. Evacuations were also ordered in Peru, where waves 2m (6.5ft) above normal forced about 200 people to leave the seaside town of Boca del Rio near the Chilean border, police said.

 http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/site/?pageid=event_desc&edis_id=EQ-20140402-43216-CHL
[important]For more information on Tsunamis, Earthquakes and resources, see our information pages[/important]

.Tsunamis

Earthquakes

Yolanda: Update and Resources

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As of November 11, the DSWD has extended free satellite net service to close to 2,000 individuals in areas in Tacloban affected by the supertyphoon. Among those who have used the service are members of the media and NGOs. Said service was made available for our countrymen who wish to contact their loved ones.

Quick Links:

Emergency hotlines
Report on government response efforts
Info for those who want to donate or volunteer in Cebu, Tacloban, or CDO
Telco services restored in more typhoon-hit areas
Matrix of international pledges
List of evacuation centres.
The Red Cross’s Yolanda – RFL and Tracing Form
List of Casualties
A Compiled List of Yolanda / Haiyan Informational Maps: Space-based information

Summary: 8 Days Ago (7th of November)

When Typhoon Yolanda, internationally known as Typhoon Haiyan, formed as an identified tropical depression “31W”, meteorologists began tracing her path towards the Philippines there was little attention given from the international media on her potential impacts as developments in her size and path became a concern.[quote cite=”Social Welfare and Development”] “As of 12 noon, the number of families affected by typhoon Yolanda has reached the two million mark composed of 9.53 million persons as Local Government Units (LGUs) from Regions IV-A and B, V, VI, VII, VIII, X, and CARAGA continue to assess the extent of the disaster.”[/quote] The day Yolanda made landfall on the Philippines as a Category 5 Super-Typhoon images and footage rolled in the international media began incredulous coverage of the Typhoon Yolanda, most continuing coverage of the complex emergency and devastation left behind.  There is (obviously) national coverage of the ongoing crisis in some detail, though many small, local news sources are not available because of the great infrastructural damage in most affected regions.

Summary: Eight Days Later (15th of November)

Eight days later, there are many concerns in the Central Philippines that have yet to be alleviated. Due to massive damages to the infrastructure it has been a challenge to get needed supplies areas critically affected by Typhoon Yolanda, but aide has arrived or is en-route.  The Department of Energy has deployed generators to Yolanda-hit areas.  
 

 A total of 17,890 personnel, 844 vehicles, 44 seacraft, 31 aircraft, and other assets / equipment from National and Local Agencies, Responders and Volunteer Organizations were prepositioned and deployed to strategic areas to facilitate response operations. —NDRRMC Situation Report on the effects of Typhoon YOLANDA, November 14, 2013 (6:00 p.m.)

State of National Calamity

Major media outlets have reported on the hard hit areas, most covering the scathed capital city of Leyte; Tacloban City. Due to its large size, the damage is apparent, and the emergent needs of this city are undoubtedly great, as are the needs of all towns, cities, and barangays in Samar, Cebu, Iloilo, Capiz, Aklan, and Palawan. The Presidential Proclamation No.682, dated November 11, 2013 declared a State of National Calamity, affecting Samar, Cebu, Leyte, Iloilo, Capiz, Aklan, and Palawan. [quote cite=”Official Gazette” url=”http://www.gov.ph/2013/11/11/dswd-provides-taclobanons-with-satellite-internet-service/”] As of November 11, the DSWD has extended free satellite net service to close to 2,000 individuals in areas in Tacloban affected by the supertyphoon. Among those who have used the service are members of the media and NGOs. Said service was made available for our countrymen who wish to contact their loved ones.[/quote ]With not enough people to properly identify every body found, it is anticipated that a number of victims will go unidentified, and with regional environmental and weather factors, time is an important factor for both identification and needed burial.  There are plausible concerns of flood waters and additional rains causing sickness, infection. Hospitals are reporting they are close to running out of needed medicines as well as doctors and nurses concerned they won’t be able to meet the needs of critical care for patients.

 

Many hope that with international resources combined, food, medical supplies and basic necessities will be able to be delivered faster and in greater quantity. Combined forces, assembled medical personnel teams, along with aid and relief packages that are now arriving in greater numbers in the proclaimed State of Calamity areas.  Measures  are being taken to help fix immediate obstacles, assist those in need of rescue, restore peace and order, maintain security, and a price freeze on essential medicines has been implemented. These examples are all indicators of the strong response that has become more tangible now that efforts have increased in pace and overall progress.

Updates from The Official Gazette

Official List of Casualties

Deceased: 3633
Injured: 12487
Missing: 1179
 

The DSWD has opened satellite repacking centers of relief goods in the NCR and in affected regions. Meanwhile, the schedule for volunteers at DSWD-NROC is already full until November 18. All those interested in volunteering, please call 851-2681/852-8081.

Food and Water

Field Bulletin No. 3: On relief operations in Yolanda-affected areas

Field Bulletin No. 2: On relief operations in Yolanda-affected areas

Status of relief and rehabilitation efforts in Yolanda-affected areas as of November 15, 2013 (6:00 a.m.)

DSWD assures faster relief ops

Medical

Field Bulletin No. 4: On relief operations in Yolanda-affected areas (medical supplies)

Field Bulletin No. 3: On relief operations in Yolanda-affected areas (medical supplies)

Contact persons and hotlines from the Department of Health, Eastern Visayas & Central Office

“We won’t stop until we get all medical teams on the ground” – DOH

Shelter

Funding and Foreign Aid

Interagency One-Stop-Shop for donated relief goods fully operational

Infrastructure

Relief effort reaches typhoon-ravaged areas via supply routes

Power

AFP opens communication cells in Tacloban, Mactan, and Roxas City

Communications

Restoring communications after Yolanda: Updates as of November 12, 2013

DSWD provides Taclobanons with satellite Internet service

Security

Peace and security efforts in Yolanda-struck areas

Resources:

Maps

Google Crisis and Relief Map

DSWD Disaster Mitigation and Response Situation Map

DENR GDIS Map

A Compiled List of Yolanda / Haiyan Informational Maps: Space-based information

Weather

PAGASA 

Project NOAH

Reports

NDRMMC Situation Report

Status of Municipalities, Towns and Cities, in Leyte, Eastern Samar, Western Samar (The matrix is up to date as of November 15, 2013, 5:00 p.m.)

International Assistance Matrix

People Finder

Google Person Finder

A mobile version of this tool is available. You can also search with SMS by texting 2662999 (Globe), 4664999 (SMART), 22020999 (Sun), or +1.650.800.3977 with the message Search [name]. For example, to search for Joshua, text Search Joshua.

Person Finder is a searchable missing person database written in Python and hosted on App Engine. Person Finder implements the PFIF data model and provides PFIF import and export as well as PFIF Atom feeds. It was initially created by Google volunteers in response to the Haiti earthquake in January 2010, and today contains contributions from many volunteers inside and outside of Google. It was used again for the earthquakes in Chile, Yushu, and Japan, and now runs at http://google.org/personfinder/.

Red Cross RFL and Tracing Form

The Philippine Red Cross (PRC) has deployed assessment and rescue teams to the areas affected by recent typhoon Yolanda (international name Haiyan), locally known as Yolanda, to evaluate the damage and to support rescue efforts. Welfare Desks including RFL and tracing services are established in the affected areas. National Societies abroad that are approached by families without news of their loved ones can contact the PRC Social Services Department Email: sos@redcross.org.ph, zenaida.beltejar@redcross.org.ph Mobile: 09175328500 Landline: 5270000 loc. 126, 5270867 Twitter: @philredcross @justcallmelloyd @ilovemishang @lynvgarcia or use the #TracingPH Email: lyn.garcia@redcross.org.ph, kenneth.dimalibot@redcross.org.ph, opcen@redcross.org.ph

Other Resources

StatusPH: Real-time location based information aimed at both users and systems

Creating a map and database that shows ongoing actions such as rescue missions, hospitals, meeting points, points of internet, points of phone reception.

Super lightweight, fast and mobile optimised. Focus is on the INPUT side as well as allowing individuals with mobile access to see what’s available near them.

StatusPH (http://www.statusph.net/) has an API and now needs developers to assist in writing more scripts to help StatusPH get additional actionable data from other sources.  They have a complete guide and documentation for how any developer can contribute and work, in any language.  Simply visit https://github.com/PimDeWitte/spowerscripts.

Effects of the storm

Visit www.piacaraga.com’s Yolanda page.

Online information for natural calamities

What does it mean if an area is under a state of calamity?

Make sense of PAGASA’s color-coding signals.

Learn more about the Philippine Area of Responsibility.

Learn more about PAGASA’s public storm warning signals

Infographic: Mga paalala ukol sa storm surge

Infographic: Mga paalala ukol sa baha

Other Local Government Units (links to Local Government Academy website)

 

If you have something you see missing in this list of resources, or have a suggestion of a resource, or a compiled list of resources to add, a map, or a volunteer opportunity, please comment below, and once verified, they information will be added. Thank you!

 

Super Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan)

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[important](Author’s Note:  There is an updated post on Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) written 15 November, 2013. Please visit http://info4disasters.org/yolanda-update-resources/ and be informed of the most recent and up-to-date information.  Thank you!)[/important]

Typhoon Yolonda Gallery:

 

Super Typhoon Yolandai (internationally known as Haiyan), thought to be the largest typhoon of this year’s season, measures 600km in diameter, and at 4:40AM Philippine Standard Time, Yolanda made landfall over Guiuan, Eastern Samar.ii  PAGASAiii predicts that on Saturday morning, Typhoon Yolanda is expected to be 240km West Northwest of Coron, Palaan. It will be Saturday evening before Yolanda will be outside of PARiv. Maximum sustained winds are predicted to reach 235kph near the centre and have gusts up to 275kph, accompanied by an average of 10.0 – 30.0mm per hour within the 600 km diameter of the Super Typhoon.v

 

[quote style=”1″]”YOLANDA”, after hitting Guiuan ( Eastern Samar), is expected to traverse the provinces of Biliran, the Northern tip of Cebu, Iloilo, Capiz, Aklan, Romblon, Semirara Island, the Southern part of Mindoro then Busuanga and will exit the Philippine landmass (on Saturday early morning) towards the West Philippine Sea. Estimated rainfall amount is from 10.0 – 30.0 mm per hour (Heavy – Intense) within the 400 km diameter of the Typhoon. Sea travel is risky over the seaboards of Northern Luzon and over the eastern seaboard of Central

Luzon. Residents in low lying and mountainous areas under signal #4, #3 and #2 are alerted against possible flashfloods and landslides. Likewise, those living in coastal areas under signal #4, #3 and #2 are alerted against storm surges which may reach up to 7-meter wave height. The public and the disaster risk reduction and management council concerned are advised to take appropriate actions and watch for the next bulletin to be issued at 11 AM today. [/quote]

 PAGASA and JTWC Updates

PAGASA has issued images showing the predicted path of Yolanda. PAGASA has also provided hourly updates, bulletins, and warnings that can be accessed by visiting http://www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/wb/tcupdate.shtml. The JTWCvi has also issued images of predicted path, satellite composites, and enhanced imagery. JTWC’s updates, forecast discussions, and warnings can be found at http://www.usno.navy.mil/JTWC/.

 PAGASA Signals

There are warnings. also known as signals that given to the public from PAGASA.  These warnings, or signals, are called Philippine Public Storm Warning Signals, and abbreviated as PSWS.vii  PSWS range from low to high intensity, as well as anticipated to sudden impact; the lowest of the warning signals is #1, and the highest of the signals is #4.viii To understand more about what each signal specifically means, visit http://www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/genmet/psws.html#psws3. The current PSWS issued for the Philippines concerning Typhoon Yolanda can be accessed at http://www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/wb/tcupdate.shtml or http://www.gov.ph/crisis-response/updates-typhoon-yolanda/.

 IFRC, Philippine Red Cross & Community Chapters

The Philippine Red Cross has been encouraging preparedness for Yolanda through social media accounts, community outreach, and through their web page. Their Chapters have been briefed and are now staged in their respective communities across the Philippines prepared to offer aid, and basic essentials. They issued their PRC Preparedness and Response Plan Re: Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) yesterday, giving a broad look at the measures they have taken to help. For more information and updates on what the Philippine Red Cross is currently doing you can visit their website at http://www.redcross.org.ph/, find them on Facebook, follow them on Twitter, or subscribe to their You Tube Channel. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies issued an information bulletin on 7 November, 2013.

Earlier on Thursday, 7 November, the IFRC participated in a Humanitarian Country Team (HCT) and cluster leads meeting on the preparedness for response to Typhoon Haiyan. The IFRC Country Representative and the global shelter cluster regional focal point for Asia Pacific– who is in the Philippines since 18 October 2013 supporting an ongoing activation relating to the Central Visayas earthquake– participated. In preparation, the emergency shelter cluster has placed a team on standby to join rapid multi-sector assessment teams that are likely to be deployed in the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan.

Meanwhile, on Thursday afternoon, 7 November, the PRC and Red Cross Red Crescent Movement partners with presence in the Philippines – Australian Red Cross, Finnish Red Cross, German Red Cross, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the Netherlands Red Cross and Spanish Red Cross – will have a meeting to define how they will best support the PRC in responding to potential humanitarian needs that will be wrought by the typhoon. In due course, partners will be updated on how the Movement components will coordinate possible interventions. —excerpt from IFRC Information Bulletin

[important]

Official Resources

Other Important Resources:

Government Yolanda Updates (Updated Regularly)

Philippine Red Cross Survival Tips

Update: Typhoon Yolanda highest predicted storm surge and tide

List of municipalities expected to be affected by 40-60 mm 3-hour accumulated rainfall

List of municipalities expected to be affected by 60-100 mm 3-hour accumulated rainfall

List of barangays with alluvial fans

[/important]

 

 Warning to the Public

dotc_secretary_jabayaThe Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) warns the public of individuals attempting to solicit favours using the name of DOTC Secretary Joseph Emilio “Jun” Aguinaldo Abaya or representative/s of the Secretary or any of the Department’s officials. The DOTC advises the public to report any such request/s for favours/ transactions by the said individuals to the Office of the Secretary at Tel.Nos.724-6465/ 723-4698 or the Office of the Administrative Service Director at Tel. No.721-0800.

 

[spoiler title=”Spoiler title” open=”0″ style=”1″][tweets username=”dost_pagasa” limit=”3″ style=”1″ show_time=”1″] [tweets username=”NDRRMC_OpCen” limit=”3″ style=”1″ show_time=”1″] [tweets username=”philredcross” limit=”3″ style=”1″ show_time=”1″] [tweets username=”govph” limit=”3″ style=”1″ show_time=”1″] [tweets username=”DOTCPhilippines” limit=”3″ style=”1″ show_time=”1″] [tweets username=”MMDA” limit=”3″ style=”1″ show_time=”1″][/spoiler]

 

Footnotes:

i Haiyan was locally named Yolanda after entering the Philippine area of responsibility.

ii As reported by the most recent update bulletins issued at 11PM local time on Thursday by the PAGASA.

iii PAGASA stands for the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration

iv PAR is the acronym for the Philippine Area of Responsibility, and Yolanda is predicted to be outside of PAR Saturday evening, when she is 934 km West Northwest of Coron, Palawan as stated by PAGASA.

v Refer to PAGASA weather bulletin: http://www.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/wb/tcupdate.shtml

vi JTWC is the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, hosted and maintained by the United States Navy.

vii PSWS represents the Philippine Public Storm Warning Signals

Relief Web updates

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ReliefWeb

Situation Reports / 15 Feb 2014

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – 09 Feb 2014
HIGHLIGHTS • The number of people from South Sudan seeking shelter in Sudan stands at some 24,700 as of 10 February, according to the Government of Sudan and humanitarian organisations. • The AU announced the resumption of negotiations between the Government of Sudan an d SPLM-N on the … Read more
European Commission Humanitarian Aid department – 13 Feb 2014
Messages clés – Suite à l’escalade de la violence intercommunautaire au début du mois de décembre 2013, le nombre de personnes déplacées internes (PDI s ) a dépassé les 714 000. Plus de 288 000 se trouvent dans la capitale, Bangui. 60% d’en tre elles sont des enfants. Plus de la moitié … Read more
European Commission Humanitarian Aid department – 13 Feb 2014
Key messages – Following the escalation of the inter-communal violence in the beginning of December 2013, the number of internally displaced people (IDPs) in the Central African Republic has increased to more than 714 000. Over 288 000 are reported in the capital Bangui. Sixty percent of them are … Read more
World Food Programme – 15 Feb 2014
South Sudan was affected by poor macro-economic performance even before the breakout of the current crisis, showing declining per capita GDP, shortage of foreign reserves, deflation, and a high spread between official and informal exchange rates. Despite the improved harvest, the country will still … Read more
UN High Commissioner for Refugees – 31 Jan 2014
UNHCR operational highlights – The awareness campaign on the multi-year resettlement operation of Congolese refugees took place from January 22 to 28 in several communes of Bujumbura. The aim was to give all the information on this operation and to raise awareness about responsible behavior from … Read more
UN High Commissioner for Refugees – 31 Jan 2014
Faits marquants dans les opérations de l’UNHCR – La campagne de sensibilisation sur l’opération pluri-annuelle de réinstallation des réfugiés congolais s’est déroulée du 22 au 28 janvier dans plusieurs communes de la Mairie de Bujumbura. Le but était de donner toute l’information … Read more
Famine Early Warning System Network – 15 Feb 2014
Maize is the main staple crop in Tanzania. Rice and beans are also very important, the latter constituting the main source of protein for most low- and middle- income households. Dar es Salaam is the main consumer market in the country. Arusha is another important market and is linked with Kenya in … Read more
Famine Early Warning System Network – 15 Feb 2014
Maize, sorghum, wheat, and groundnuts are the most important food commodities in South Sudan. Sorghum, maize, and groundnuts are the staple foods for the poor in most rural areas. Maize flour and wheat (as bread) are more important for middle-income and rich households in urban areas. Sorghum and … Read more
Famine Early Warning System Network – 15 Feb 2014
Maize grain and maize meal are the most important food commodities and indicators of food security in Zambia. All of the markets represented — with the exception of Kitwe — are in provincial centers and thus provide a geographic representation. Chipata and Choma are both areas of high maize … Read more
Famine Early Warning System Network – 15 Feb 2014
Maize is the most widely consumed cereal by the rural poor. Sorghum is generally one of the cheapest cereals. Teff is also very important throughout the country. The most important markets for teff are the large cities including Addis Ababa, Bahir Dar, Mekele, and Dire Dawa. Addis Abada is the … Read more
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – 13 Feb 2014
**HIGHLIGHTS** – Humanitarian aid delivered, and civilians evacuated from the besieged Old City of Homs – Estimated hundreds of thousands displaced from eastern Aleppo City and rural areas. – Nine days of access to Yarmouk camp enables distribution of food, medicines and medical attention to … Read more
US Agency for International Development – 14 Feb 2014
**HIGHLIGHTS** – Approximately 707,400 people remain internally displaced in South Sudan as a result of hostilities that began on December 15. – U.N. Under-Secretary-General and Emergency Relief Coordinator Valerie Amos declared the current crisis in South Sudan a Level Three Emergency on February … Read more

What is it like fasting in the heatwave?

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4:00pm Thursday 18th July 2013 in NewsBy Asian Image reporter

What is it like fasting in the heatwave?
What is it like fasting in the heatwave?

It has been hottest summer since 2006 but how are Muslims coping with the heat?.

Ramadan is now over a week old but things don’t seem to have got any easier.

Shabana, 27, a teacher says she struggled to get through the first two days, “It was really difficult at first. The first two days my friends found it really hard and I couldn’t concentrate at all in the afternoon!

“The weekend was worst than during the weekday. At least during the weekday you can work and stay occupied.

continue reading here

info4 Drought Quick links

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“>

Drought
In general, drought is defined as an extended period – a season, a year, or several years – of deficient rainfall relative to the statistical multi-year average for a region. However, dozens of more specific drought definitions are used around the world that are defined according to the lack of rain over various time periods, or measured impacts such as reservoir levels or crop losses. Because of the various ways drought is measured, an objective drought definition has yet to be produced upon which everyone can agree[1].
Source: UNISDR
Characteristics
Drought can be defined according to meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural criteria[2].
– Meteorological.
Drought is usually based on long-term precipitation departures from normal, but there is no consensus regarding the threshold of the deficit or the minimum duration of the lack of precipitation that make a dry spell an official drought.
– Hydrological
Drought refers to deficiencies in surface and subsurface water supplies. It is measured as stream flow, and as lake, reservoir, and ground water levels.
– Agricultural
Drought occurs when there is insufficient soil moisture to meet the needs of a particular crop at a particular time. A deficit of rainfall over cropped areas during critical periods of the growth cycle can result in destroyed or underdeveloped crops with greatly depleted yields. Agricultural drought is typically evident after meteorological drought but before a hydrological drought.
Impacts/damages
Impacts are commonly referred to as direct or indirect. Reduced crop, rangeland, and forest productivity; increased fire hazard; reduced water levels; increased livestock and wildlife mortality rates; and damage to wildlife and fish habitat are a few examples of direct impacts. The consequences of these impacts illustrate indirect impacts. For example, a reduction in crop, rangeland, and forest productivity may result in reduced income for farmers and agribusiness, increased prices for food and timber, unemployment, reduced tax revenues because of reduced expenditures, increased crime, foreclosures on bank loans to farmers and businesses, migration, and disaster relief programs. Direct or primary impacts are usually biophysical. Conceptually speaking, the more removed the impact from the cause, the more complex the link to the cause. In fact, the web of impacts becomes so diffuse that it is very difficult to come up with financial estimates of damages. The impacts of drought can be categorized as economic, environmental, or social.
Many economic impacts occur in agriculture and related sectors, including forestry and fisheries, because of the reliance of these sectors on surface and subsurface water supplies. In addition to obvious losses in yields in crop and livestock production, drought is associated with increases in insect infestations, plant disease, and wind erosion. Droughts also bring increased problems with insects and diseases to forests and reduce growth. The incidence of forest and range fires increases substantially during extended droughts, which in turn places both human and wildlife populations at higher levels of risk[3].
See also an example of the effects of drought on the aquatic ecosystem in Australia and Colorado.
Emergency Action
In order to assess risk and respond to drought, a water supplier may wish to establish a local drought management team. Be sure to include people from all the relevant local water user groups on the team[4] (see more details on the link). A team may:
  • gather all the available drought information for your community,
  • identify information gaps,
  • target water management needs,
  • implement water conservation strategies,
  • provide support to local government in managing community water supplies, and
  • communicate with the public.
See also the action on responding to drought in pastoral areas of Ethiopia and the North Carolina emergency response plan.
Mitigation
The mitigation action identifies both the long and short term activities and actions that can be implemented to prevent and mitigate drought impacts. Such activities and actions are essential in the development of specific drought planning and response efforts. The operational component includes six aspects that need continuous feedback between them[5]:
  • Preparedness, early warning, monitoring systems.
  • Establishing priorities of water use.
  • Defining the conditions and the thresholds to declare drought levels.
  • Establishing the management objectives in each drought level.
  • Defining the actions.
  • Implementation of actions.
Monitoring and preparedness planning is the first essential step for moving from crisis to risk management in response to drought, and can be viewed as permanent measures to cope with drought events. The management actions related to agriculture and water supply systems are presented with a common conceptual framework based on the use of drought indices for evaluating the levels of drought risk (pre-alert, alert, and emergency), that allow linkages to be established between science (risk analysis) and policy (operational component).
See also drought mitigation policy in South Africa in Water Page and drought mitigation strategy for Bundelkhand region of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh in India.
Further information
Several actions related to drought management plans:
1.    Drought contingency planning for pastoral livelihoods. (click here)
2.    Drought Contingency and Emergency Water Management Plan in Texas. (click here)
3.    Drought management guidelines in Mediterranean countries. (click here)
4.    Information about satellite observation and rainfall forecast to provide earlier warning of African drought by USGS.
 
 
above info4mation is from our friends at the UN

 

DROUGHT
USGS Water Use
UNL Drought Monitor
UNL Drought Monitor Current Conditions
National Drought Mitigation Center
USDA Drought Reports
USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service
NOAA’s Drought Info

 

[important]PLEASE PUT ANY BROKEN LINKS IN THE COMMENTS BOX. THANK YOU![/important]

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